Whether it is men or women who are active or passive smokers, smoking is bad for health.
In fact, women who smoke are at a higher risk of suffering from irregular periods. Smoking may alter levels of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone and other hormones involved in the regularity of the menstrual cycle.
A 2000 study published in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research reports that menstrual irregularity in bulimia nervosa is associated with depression, cigarette smoking and fluctuations in body weight that act as metabolic stresses that contribute to the perpetuation of menstrual disturbances.
At the same time, women who smoke experience more severe premenstrual symptoms and an increase in cramps lasting two or more days. Also, women who smoke excessively are less likely to conceive than nonsmokers.
8. Poor Diet
A proper diet is important for your health and can play an important role in maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle.
A poor diet low in nutrients, antioxidants and probiotic foods can affect adrenal glands and the thyroid, which in turn can cause significant hormonal changes in the body and absent or irregular periods.
Also, eating more than the recommended dietary intake of fiber can reduce estrogen levels and cause period problems.
Apart from a poor diet, binge eating is bad for a woman’s health.
A 2014 study published in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research reports that women who reported lifetime binge eating were more likely to report either amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea than women who reported no binge eating. This could be due to metabolic and endocrinological factors. High BMI between 25 to 30 is also associated with infrequent menstrual cycles.
If you are having menstrual problems, make sure to eat the proper amount of food and make it the right kind. Eat high antioxidant foods that are nutrient-dense.